Redirects Hugo Module with Netlify

written by Regis Philibert
8 minute read
Article :Redirects Hugo Module with Netlify

Redirections and URL rewrites are an essential part of any web project, and even more-so for sites that serve audiences from different countries.

At theNewDynamic we provide localized content to make sure visitors from France, for example, can access any pages of our client’s website with a language and format adapted to the French market.

To deliver the right HTML file to the right audience, we need a robust and finely tuned set of redirection rules.

In a Jamstack context, while most of your URLs naturally match your page’s index.html file path, any other special routing parameters must be communicated to your CDN host.

This communication can take many forms, depending on the CDN service, but one requirement remains: you need to dynamically set those rules so content addition does not require a developer’s attention.

In this article we’ll focus on Netlify’s own redirection methods; how we dynamically set our rules in its format; how we packaged our approach in a reusable open source solution; and how to use the resulting Hugo Module on your Netlify hosted website.

This article is about the hows-and-whys of the TND Redirects Hugo Module.

Redirections on Netlify

What constitutes a redirection/rewrite rule.

These are the critical things to take into account when setting a rule with Netlify.

  • from: What is the URL the user followed?
  • to: Where should we take the user?
  • code: The HTTP status code, 3XX is a redirect, 2XX is a rewrite, many others in between.
  • country: If the rule is targeting an audience by country, we need to know its code.
  • language: If the rule is targeting an audience by language, we need to know its code.
  • role: If the CDN supports user roles (Netlify does), they can constitute an audience.
  • force: By default, a redirection or rewrite only happens if the origin URL does not exist. In order to apply the rule, even if the origin page exists, you need to force it.

How to communicate the rules to Netlify.

  • Through your netlify.toml configuration file.
    This is okay for small global rules, but impossible to dynamically populate as this needs to be committed to your repo.
  • Through a _redirects file published at the root of your website.
    Now this is interesting because we can have our framework dynamically build and publish that file with the many rules we need.

We need:

  1. To abstract ourselves from Netlify’s ways so our solution can be expanded to other services in the future.
    Netlify is great, but some clients might need a different CDN, and we don’t want to have to maintain X different redirection solutions and X different configuration terms. Our project and its redirects should migrate to a new service with minimal intervention.
    This means an unopiniated UX and terminology and a good way to pick the right rule formatting logic depending on the service.
  2. The ability to hard-set rules through the Hugo project’s config.yaml.
    Simple and global rules should be set the easy way, through a configuration file.
    We could rely on netlify.toml for redirections. But we just mentioned the importance of owning your own terminology! Also we always want to limit the number of configuration files. And finally we really don’t want to miss out on Hugo’s Configuration Directory.
  3. The ability to complement those hard-set rules with code.
    Fore more complex and dynamic rules, we’ll need code. In Hugo terms this translates into a returning partial which would send more rules to our Module depending on some computed factors.
  4. For Hugo projects, to use Hugo’s Aliases UX while transferring responsibility to Netlify.
    Hugo’s own way to deal with redirections is good, but superfluous now that the CDN handles them. We can still look for the Front Matter aliases found on pages and complement our redirect rules with those.

1. Service abstraction

We love Netlify and use it for most of our projects, but our goal is that the Module be the sole entry for adding rules regardless of potential CDN services.

We took our experience gained from building another service abstracting module: TND Forms Hugo Module. It supports both Netlify Forms and Formspree solutions but the users do not have to concern themselves with those. The UX and terminology is consistent regardless of the service. This what we call service abstraction!

UX and terminology

Let’s see how our Module conceptualize a rule using our terminology. We’ll use origin and target instead of Netlify’s from and to

origin: /faq
target: /faq-canada
country: ca
force: true

This redirects users navigating to /faq to a page dedicated to their audience, /faq-canada . It is a forced redirection because here the /faq page does exist, we just want Canadians to see a different one.

We won’t go into the details of Netlify redirect rule format, but this how this rule should look like in the _redirects file:

/faq /faq-canada 301! Country=ca

Note that origin and target can take any format understood by Netlify or any future potential service.

origin: /posts brand=:id tag=:tag 
target: /posts/:tag/:brand
code: 201

Here /articles?id=12&tag=arts will point to /post/arts/12 without changing the browser address.

Again as a Netlify rule:

/articles id=:id tag=:tag /posts/:tag/:id 201

Adaptable code

The Module uses a function called netlify/FormatRule to turn any given rule map into a Netlify’s readable line.

When a new service is supported we’ll simply add that-service/FormatRule and the Module will pick it up.

Of course, other changes might occur, but they won’t require any code intervention from the Module’s users.

2. Hard-set rules.

Now that we’ve agreed on a terminology, we’ll use our Hugo projects’s reserved params key to ensure there are no conflicts and allow users to add rules themselves.

# config.yaml
    - origin: /faq
      target: /faq-canada
      country: ca
      force: true
    - origin: /posts brand=:id tag=:tag
      target: /posts/:tag/:brand
      code: 201

Now the Module can just look at site.Params.tnd_redirects.rules and generate the corresponding rules.

3. Complement rules with code

Now hard-set is fine, but again, not enough. We need more control.

Adding a new rule through the configuration file seems pretty easy for a developer, but it may not be for an editor. For them, we want to build our own CMS logic, and build our rules from that.

It’s also pretty handy for regionalization.

How do we do that?

Well the Module sports a returning partial or function called AddRules, which returns an empty array.

Regardless of the content of the array returned, the Module will try to add the rules contained in the array on top of the rules defined in the configuration file.

Thanks to Hugo’s union filesystem any user adding a homonymous partial on their project at layouts/partials/tnd-redirects/AddRules.html will overwrite the Module’s own partial.

It is now up to the user to have their own partial return an array of complementary rules to be consumed, and processed by the Module.

Practical example

Let’s say the project needs to serve users from Canada a dedicated product page, different than the one served to other countries (shipping costs, tax information etc…). But only if the editor checked the “localize” box.

For every concerned product we want the Module to add the following conceptualized rule.

origin: /product/big-fat-bag/
target: /product/big-fat-bag/canada.html
code: 201
force: true
country: ca

In order to do so, the user should just have to add the following Go Template code to their project’s AddRules partial:

{{*/ layouts/partials/tnd-redirects/AddRules.html */}}
{{ $rules := slice }}
{{ range where site.RegularPages "Type" "product" }}
  {{ if .Params.localize }}
    {{ $origin := .RelPermalink }}
    {{ $target := print $origin "canada.html" }}
    {{ $rule := dict "origin" $origin "target" $target "code" 201 "force" true "country" "ca" }}
    {{ $rules = $rules | append $rule }}
  {{ end }}
{{ end }}

{{ return $rules }}

Good! Users can now code the additions of rules unique to their project’s context!

4. Hugo’s Aliases. Netlify redirects.

See it as a built-in AddRules logic. We simply list all available pages from every sites (languages), retrieve their Aliases as set per Hugo’s own Front Matter UX, and add the matching rule.

Of course this will happen only if the user requested it, as Hugo’s own alias solution is perfectly satisfactory for many.

Using the Module

At last!


We’ve covered a lot of Module articles here on this blog, returning readers should be familiar with the following:

Make sure your project is init as a Hugo Module and:

# config.yaml
   - path:

Publish _redirects

Add to your homepage the output format corresponding to Netlify redirects. This can be done either through your configuration file:

# config.yaml
  - HTML
  - tnd_redirects_netlify

Or through your homepage’s content file:

# content/
title: Homepage
- tnd_redirects_netlify

Notice: This will overwrite any default output formats settings. Make sure to double check Hugo’s defaults so you don’t accidentally remove a needed format.

Set rules through configuration file

See 2. Hard-set rules

Set rules through code

See 3. Complement rules with code


In order to use Netlify to add the redirection set through Hugo’s aliases you should:

  • Set disableAliases to true in you Hugo’s project’s configuration.
  • Set use_aliases to true in the Module’s configuration map in your project.
# config.yaml

DisableAliases: true
    use_aliases: true

That’s it that’s all!

All your redirects needs, packaged!

By understanding a problematic we constantly have to address on most of our Netlify hosted projects, we were able to package its answer in a Hugo Module available for us and for all.

From now on, we’ll never have to drop a hard-coded _redirects file in a /static directory or configure redirects through the netlify.toml file.

And yet, this does not limit our abilities or control over the great powers Netlify redirects and rewrites offer to our clients. Nor does it limit us to any services! By thinking up our own API, we made the Module service abstracted and ready to integrate other hosting provider redirects approach! Once any of those matches Netlify’s of course…

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